Migration and Occupational Health

Migration and Occupational Health

Research that specifically aims to improve the health of diverse migrant populations (e.g., rural to urban) in China and the region, including international and humanitarian migrant populations.


Multilingualism in providing quality mental health care to migrants –needs, resources and practices.

We have formed an international Interdisciplinary Research Consortium including researchers in 5 countries (Germany - Universität Hamburg; Romania - Babes-Bolyai University; Netherlands - Utrecht University & University of Amsterdam; South Africa - Stellenbosch University; and China – NYU Shanghai and the Center for Global Health Equity) to conduct a four year project to assess barriers to accessing (mental) healthcare across the world – with an aim to develop digital technological solutions to improve access to care.

This project is supported through generous funding (1.305 million Euros) from the joint funding initiative of La Caixa Foundation (Spain), Novo Nordisk Fonden (Denmark), Wellcome (United Kingdom) and Volkswagen Foundation (Germany): Mobility – Global Medicine and Health Research - Joint call – 2020.


The Population Research Initiative for Domestic Employees (PRIDE) study is the largest, most comprehensive mixed-methods data collection effort to document the health and wellbeing of migrant domestic workers. The study enrolled 1,388 Filipino and 367 Indonesian domestic workers, representing 10% of the overall target population living in the Macao (SAR), China at the time of the study.

The data was obtained included common mental disorders, addiction, sexual health, physical health, egocentric social networks, social capital, family composition, remittances and other socioeconomic variables. Anthropometric data collection on cardiometabolic risk factors including BMI, body fat, blood pressure, and waist circumference, and rapid HIV/syphilis testing was also conducted. Spatial data was obtained on household residence location. Various exposures utilizing the social determinants of health framework, were measured to explore potential modifiable exposures that could promote health in the population.

The priorities for this effort were co-created through collaboration with community based NGOs, and Filipino and Indonesian domestic workers, who additionally assisted in the process of validating all of the measures used in this study, through rigorous translation process that involved cognitive interviewing.

Our research team continues to disseminate findings from this study and opportunities for collaboration are available.

Center collaborators are in bold; student/trainee co-authors are indicated with an*

Qualitative studies

Hall, B. J., Garabiles, M.R., & Latkin, C. (2019). Work life, relationship, and policy determinants of Health and Well-being among Filipino Domestic Workers in China: A Qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 19:229. doi: doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6552-4

Garabiles, M. R., Ofreneo, M., & Hall, B. J. (2017). Towards a theory of resilience for transnational families of Filipina domestic workers. PLoS ONE, 12: e0183703. doi: doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183703

*Vargas, M., Garabiles, M. R., & Hall, B. J. (2020). Narrative identities of overseas Filipino domestic worker community in Macao (SAR) China. Journal of Community Psychology, 48, 977-993. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.22318

Garabiles, M.R., Mayawati, E.H., & Hall, B. J. (in press). Exploring resilience processes of Filipino migrant domestic workers: A multisystemic approach. Journal of Community Psychology. doi: 10.1002/jcop.22820

Instrument Validation studies

Hall, B. J., Patel, A., *Lao, L., Liem, A., Mayawati, E.H., & Tsipto, S. (2021). Structural validation of The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) among Filipina and Indonesian female migrant domestic workers. Psychiatry Research, 295, 113575. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113575

Hall, B. J., *Yip, P. S. Y., Garabiles, M. R., *Lao, K. C. K., Chan, E. W.W., & Marx, B. P. (2019). Psychometric validation of the PTSD Checklist-5 among female Filipino migrant workers. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10:1, 1571378. doi: doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2019.1571378

Garabiles, M. R., *Lao, C. K., *Yip, P. S. Y., *Chan, E. W. W., Mordeno, I., Hall, B. J. (2020). Psychometric Validation of PHQ-9 and GAD-7 in Filipino Migrant Domestic Workers in Macao (SAR), China. Journal of Personality Assessment, 102, 833-844. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2019.1644343

Mordeno, I.G., Carpio, J.G.E., Mendoza, N.B., Hall, B. J. (2018). The latent structure of major depressive symptoms and its relationship with somatic disorder symptoms among Filipino female domestic workers in China. Psychiatry Research, 270, 587-594. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.10.029

Huang, L., Renzaho, A., Chen, W., & Hall, B. J. (2020). Validation of obesity status based on self-reported data among Filipina and Indonesian female migrant domestic workers in Macao (SAR), China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 5927. Doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165927

Xiong, P., Spira, A., & Hall, B. J. (2020). Psychometric and Structural Validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index among Filipino Domestic Workers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 14, 5219. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145219

Dynamic symptom network analytic studies

Garabiles, M.R., Shen, Z. Z., Chu, Q., Hannam, K., Yang L., & Hall, B. J. (in press). Investigating the physical and mental health nexus: A network analysis of depression, cardiometabolic health, bone mass, and perceived health status among Filipino domestic workers. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. doi: 10.1007/s12529-022-10087-5

*Wang, S., *Sit, H.F., Garabiles, M., Blum, D.J., Hannam, K., Armour, C., & Hall, B. J. (2021). A network analysis investigation of the comorbidity between sleep dysfunction and PTSD symptomatology among Filipino domestic workers in Macao (SAR) China. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 140, 337-345. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.05.040

Garabiles, M.R., *Lao, K., *Wang, S. & Hall, B. J. (2020). The network structure of posttraumatic stress disorder among Filipina migrant domestic workers: comorbidity with depression. European Journal of Psychotraumatology. doi: 10.1080/20008198.2020.1765544

Garabiles, M. R., *Lao, K., *Hung, A., & Hall, B. J. (2019). Exploring comorbidity between anxiety and depression among migrant Filipino domestic workers: A network approach. Journal of Affective Disorders, 250, 85-93. doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.02.062

Obesity outcomes

Hall, B. J., *Huang, L., *Yi, G., Latkin, C. (2021). Fast Food Restaurant Density and Weight Status: A Spatial Analysis among Female Filipino Migrant Workers in Macao, (SAR), People’s Republic of China. Social Science and Medicine, 269, 113192. doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113192

Sexual and reproductive health

*Yi, G., Liu, L., Manio, M., Latkin, C., & Hall, B. J. (2020). The influence of housing on sexual and reproductive health status and service utilization among Filipina migrant domestic workers in Macao (SAR), China. Journal of Migration and Health, 1, 100007. doi: 10.1016/j.jmh.2020.100007

Hall, B. J., *Yang, X., *Huang, L., *Yi, Grace, Chan, E. W. W., Tucker, J. D., & Latkin, C. (2020). Barriers and facilitators of rapid HIV and syphilis testing uptake among Filipino transnational migrants in China. AIDS and Behavior, 24, 418-427. doi: doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02449-0

Behavioral addiction

*Yi, G., *Huang, L., Lam, A.I.F, Latkin, C., & Hall, B. J. (2019). Spatial and Sociodemographic Correlates of Gambling Participation and Pathological Problem Gambling Among Filipino Migrant Workers in Macao (SAR), People’s Republic of China. Addictive Behaviors, 97, 49-55. doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.05.021

Mental health outcomes

Hall, B. J., *Pangan, C.A.C., Chan, E.W.W., *Huang, L. (2019). The effect of discrimination on depression and anxiety symptoms and the buffering role of social capital among female domestic workers in Macao, China. Psychiatry Research, 271, 200-207. doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.11.050

Chinese internal migrants

Our team has led and collaborated on projects related to the health and wellbeing of internal Chinese migrants. These projects have explored the sexual and reproductive health and mental health and wellbeing of Chinese migrants – across the life course.

Chen, F., Zheng, M., Xu, J., Hall, B. J., Pan, Y., Ling, L., & Chen, W. (in press). Impact of migration status on incidence of depression in middle-aged and elderly population in China: exploring healthy migrant and salmon bias hypotheses from mental health perspective. Journal of Affective Disorders.

Chen, W., Zhou, F., Hall, B. J., Tucker, J. D., Latkin, C., Renhazo, A.M.N., Ling, L. (2017). Is there a relationship between geographic distance and uptake of HIV testing services? A representative population-based study of Chinese adults in Guangzhou, China, PLoS ONE, 12: e0180801. doi: doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180801

#Chen, W., *#Zhou, F., Hall, B. J., Wang, Y., Latkin, C., Ling, L., & Tucker, J.D. (2016). Spatial distribution and cluster analysis of sexual risky sexual behaviors and STDs reported by Chinese adults in Guangzhou, China: a representative population-based study. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 92, 316-322. #Authors co-first authors. doi: 10.1136/sextrans-2015-052268

*Hoi, C. K., Chen, W., *Zhou, F., *Sou, K., & Hall, B. J. (2015). The association between social resources and depressive symptoms among Chinese migrants and non-migrants living in Guangzhou, China, Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 9, 120-129. doi: doi.org/10.1017/prp.2015.12

Sub-Saharan African migrants in China

Our team has led and collaborated on a number of studies related to the health and welfare of Sub-Saharan African migrants living, studying, and working in China. These projects have explored health services access, the distribution and burden of disease (sexual, physical, mental) in the population, and explored possible interventions to address these key issues.

Fan, Y., Zou, X., Xiong, M., Hall, B. J., Sakyi, K., Ong, J., Bodomo, A., Cao, H., Yang, B., & Cheng, W. (2021). Mental health on the move: A nationwide study to characterize post-migration depression among migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa in China. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 49, 110602. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2021.110602.

Zhou, X., Hall, B. J., Xiong, M., & Cheng, W. (2021). Post-migration well-being of Sub-Saharan Africans in China: a nationwide cross-sectional survey. Quality of Life Research, 30, 1025 – 1035. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-020-02663-7

Hall, B. J., Zhao, P., Xiong, M., Latkin, C., Yang, B. & Cheng, W. (2021). Depression, quality of life, and alcohol misuse among international migrants during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. BMJ Open, 11:e048012.

Wang, C., Tian, Q., Zhao, P., Xiong, M., Latkin, C.A., Gan, Y., Hall, B. J., & Yang, B. (2020). Disease knowledge and attitudes during the COVID-19 epidemic among international migrants in China: A national cross-sectional study. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 16, 15, 2895-2905. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.47075.

Bodomo, A., Liem, A., Lin, L., Hall, B. J. (2020). How African migrants in China cope with barriers to health care. Lancet Public Health, 5, 4:PE192. doi: doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30048-7

Lin, L., Brown, K. B., Hall, B. J., Yu, F., Yang, J., Wang, J., Schrock, J.M., Bodomo, A. B., Yang, L., Yang, B., Nehl, E.J., Tucker, J. D., & Wong, F. Y. (2016). Overcoming barriers to health-care access: A qualitative study among African migrants in Guangzhou, China. Global Public Health, 11-9, 1135-1147. doi: doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2015.1076019

Lin, L., Hall, B. J., Khoe, L. C., & Bodomo, A. B. (2015). Ebola outbreak: From the perspective of Africans in China. American Journal of Public Health, 105, 5, e5-e5. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302649

Hall, B. J., Chen, W., Ling, L., Latkin, C., & Tucker, J. D. (2014). Africans in South China face social and structural health barriers. The Lancet, 383, 1291-1292. doi: doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60637-1

McLaughlin, M., Lee, M., Hall, B. J., Bulterys, M., Li, L., & Tucker, J. D. (2014). Improving health services for African migrants in China: a health diplomacy perspective. Global Public Health, 9, 579-589. doi: doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2014.908935

Migrant health during COVID-19

Liem, A., Cheng, W., Dong, C., Lam, A.I.F, Latkin, C., & Hall, B. J. (2021). Knowledge and awareness of COVID-19 among Indonesian migrant workers in the Greater China region. Public Health, 197, 28-35. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2021.05.029

Liem, A., Wang, C., Wariyanti, Y., Laktin, C., & Hall, B. J. (2020). The neglected health of international migrant workers in the COVID-19 epidemic. Lancet Psychiatry, 7, 4:e20. doi: doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30076-6

Refugees, and other migrant populations globally

We have worked on projects directly supporting refugees in humanitarian contexts and other work focused on refugee settlement in high-income countries.

The Philippines

Dominguez, G. B., & Hall, B. J. (in press). The health status and related interventions for children left behind due to parental migration in the Philippines: A scoping review. Lancet Regional Health – Western Pacific.

Mordeno, I.G., Gallemit, M.J.S., Bangcola, B.F.B, Busaco, J.J.J.L., Tuto, R.T., & Hall, B. J. (in press). Parental migration status moderates the link between parent-child relationship and children's well-being through psychological distress. PsyCh Journal. doi: 10.1002/pchj.578

Mordeno, I.G., Gallemit, I.M.J.S., Lantud, S.S.B., Hall, B. J. (2019). Personal psychological resources mediate parent-child relationship and mental health among left-behind children. PsyCh Journal, 8, 3, 318-329. doi: doi.org/10.1002/pchj.288

Mordeno, I., & Hall, B. J. (2017). DSM-5-based latent PTSD models: Assessing structural relations with GAD in Filipino post-relocatees, Psychiatry Research, 258, 1-8. doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.09.057


Shi, W., Navario, P., & Hall, B. J. (2022). Prioritising mental health and psychosocial services in relief and recovery efforts in Ukraine. Lancet Psychiatry, 9, E27. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(22)00114-6


Greene, C. M., Kane, J. C., Bolton, P., Murray, L., Wainberg, M. L., Yi, G., Sim, A., Puffer, E., Ismael, A., & Hall, B. J. (2021). Assessing trauma related distress in refugee youth and their caregivers: Should we be concerned about iatrogenic effects? European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 1437-1447. doi: 10.1007/s00787-020-01635-z

Hall, B. J., Puffer, E., Murray, L., Ismael, A., Bass, J.K., Sim, A., & Bolton, P. (2014). The importance of establishing reliability and validity of assessment instruments for mental health problems: An example from Somali children and adolescents living in three refugee camps in Ethiopia. Psychological Injury and Law, 7, 153-164. doi: doi.org/10.1007/s12207-014-9188-9

Murray, L. Hall, B. J., Dorsey, S., Ugueto, A., Puffer, E., Sim, A., Ismael, A., Bass, J.K., Akiba, C., Lucid, L., Harrison, J., Bolton, P., & Erikson, A. (2018). An evaluation of a common elements treatment approach for youth in Somali refugee camps. Global Mental Health, 5, e16. doi: doi.org/10.1017/gmh.2018.7


Wu, S., Renzaho, A.M.N., Hall, B. J., Shi, L., Ling, L., & Chen, W. (2021). Time-varying risks of trauma and post migration stressors in refugees’ mental health during resettlement: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Lancet Psychiatry, 8, 36-47. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30422-3

Chen, W., Hall, B. J., Ling, L., & Renhazo, A.M.N. (2017). Pre-migration and post-migration factors associated with mental health in humanitarian migrants in Australia and the moderation effect of post-migration stressors: findings from the first wave of the BNLA cohort study, Lancet Psychiatry, 4, 3:218-229. doi: doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(17)30032-9


Saltzman, L. Y., Canetti, D., Hobfoll, S. E., & Hall, B. J. (2022). The impact of political violence on posttraumatic stress symptomatology: a longitudinal analysis. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 35, 219-231. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2021.1950694.